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*Robert, J.J. "A study to determine the influence of throwing skills on the subsequent learning of the service in tennis." MAT Thesis. Southeast Missouri State Univ, 1984. Available from Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO 63701

33 college women who had never participated in formal tennis lessons were randomly selected as Ss. The Shick Wall and Floor Target Test was given for the purpose of grouping the Ss into 3 levels of softball throwing ability on 3 separate measurements: throwing accuracy; throwing velocity; and a combined T score of throwing accuracy and throwing velocity. On the following day, Hewitt's Service Placement and Speed of Service Tests were given. Service instruction was followed and then Hewitt's tests were readministered. The conclusions of the study were: throwing velocity had a significant effect on service accuracy; there was a significant relationship between throwing accuracy and the pre-test accuracy service scores and the post-test velocity service scores; there was a significant relationship the throwing velocity scores and the post-test velocity service scores; and there was a significant relationship the combined T scores of throwing accuracy and throwing velocity and the pre-test accuracy service scores, and the post-test velocity service scores.

*Roetert, Ernst Paul. Development of a performance profile to assess nationally ranked junior tennis players. PhD Diss. Univ. of Connecticut, 1990. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1991. Order No. 9115584.

The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the relationships among athletic ability performance parameters and specific measures of tennis performance so that an appropriate tennis specific test battery can be designed and modified, and (2) to compare these results with tennis stroke ratings and USTA rankings for 12 and under nationally ranked male tennis players. Each player's performance scores from the USTA's performance test battery were correlated with the player's age, ranking and tennis stroke ratings. Specific weightings were assigned to each performance test based on the results of the correlation analyses. The athletic ability measurements that were assessed and correlated with age, rankings and tennis stroke ratings were: flexibility, strength, power, agility, speed, aerobic endurance and response time. Although significant correlations were found among several physical performance variables, significant correlations of these variables with age, rankings and tennis stroke ratings were not found. Of all the predictor variables, the hexagon test was the only variable to account for a significant degree of variation in rankings. Additional statistics revealed that while significant correlations were found between the tennis stroke ratings (determined through video analysis by expert tennis teaching professionals) and both sectional and national rankings, significantly higher correlations emerged between tennis stroke ratings and national rankings than between tennis stroke ratings and sectional rankings. The information gained from this study will assist in determining physical profiles of nationally ranked junior tennis players, in establishing norms for nationally ranked junior tennis players, and in assessing the importance of each test to overall tennis skill in particular.

*Rose, Debra J., Edward M. Heath, and Donald M. Megale. "Development of a diagnostic instrument for evaluating tennis serving performance." Perceptual and Motor Skills 71.2 (1990): 355-63.

This study validated a learning-sequence rating form for the slice tennis serve. Six skill components were identified and served as the basis for evaluation. Movement characteristics for observable learning stages were also described. The videotaped serving actions of 81 tennis players of different ability were evaluated independently by trained raters using the rating form developed. A measure of the rating form's reliability was obtained. Content-related evidence for validity was also obtained.

Intraclass reliability coefficients ranged from .70 to .96 across the 6 skill components identified in the final rating form. The tennis serve rating form may provide a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating tennis serving performance at various stages of learning.

*Sampedro, Renan Maximiliano Fernandes. The anthropometric somatotype differences between male and female tennis players 10 to 14 years of age in the state of Tennessee. PhD Diss. Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt Univ., 1982. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1983. Order No. 8313849.

This study was designed to identify the major differences in the Heath Carter anthropometric somatotype of male and female ranked tennis players in the Tennessee Tennis Association between the ages of 10 to 14 years. Subjects (N = 120) were 71 male and 49 female volunteer junior tennis players of the state of Tennessee. All subjects were ranked players in the Tennessee Tennis Association in the groups of 10, 12, and 14 years old. The Heath Carter Anthropometric Somatotype Method was used in obtaining the somatotype ratings. Measurements included: height, weight, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds, humerus, and femur diameters, biceps, and calf girths.

The results indicate that there were no significant differences in body size measures and somatotypes between males and females in the age groups of 10 and 12. Significant differences were found in almost all body size measures and somatotypes between males and females in the 14 year old group. The mean somatotype for males was 2.4 4.2 3.7 or mesomorph ectomorph; for females was 3.1 3.6 3.2 or central; the general somatotype for the entire sample, was ectomorphic mesomorph, or a close 2.5 4.0 3.5. No significant relationship was found for any other groups between body size measures and somatotype with performance or ranking in tennis. However, a slightly higher but yet not significant relationship was shown when data of the top 20 ranked players in each of the age and sex groups was analyzed. No significant differences were noticed between males and females in their correlation coefficients. In the arm dominance analysis, no significant differences were present between dominant and nondominant arms' triceps skinfold for all age and sex groups. However, humerus diameter measures were found to have significantly higher values in the dominant arm than in the nondominant arm, for all age and sex groups. No significant differences were found for the biceps girth values between the dominant and nondominant arm of either sex in the 10 year old age groups. For the 12 and 14 year old groups of both sexes, the biceps girth of the dominant arm was found to be significantly bigger than it was in the nondominant arm.

*Schleihauf, Robert. "Tennis serve biomechanics." USTA Research Grant, 1991. Information available from Dr. Robert Schleihauf, CUNY Hunter College, New York, NY 10021

The author studied the tennis serve biomechanics of 20 professionally ranked players. Using video cameras and 3-dimensional video analysis software, the author determined data which will outline the skilled serve techniques. A comprehensive database of skilled serves was compiled and made available for the benefit of evaluation and comparison.

*Smith, James Frank, III. The effect of angle, velocity, and rotation of incidence on the angle deviation of rebounding tennis balls. PhD Diss. Texas A&M Univ., 1988. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1989. Order No. 8913444.

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between the three predictor variables of angle of incidence (AI), velocity of incidence (VI), and rotation of incidence (RI) and the criterion variable of angle deviation (AD) of rebounding tennis balls. Procedure. A total of 30 observations were recorded by the Locam high speed camera operating at 400 frames per second and positioned at a right angle to the line of flight of the ball at the point of rebound. The tennis balls were projected from a Prince ball machine suspended above a Laykold court surface. The angles of projection were approximately 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 degrees. The balls were projected at two different velocities, and with either topspin, backspin, or no spin. Results. A significant relationship was found to exist between the criterion variable and the three predictors. The proposed model was shown to account for 79.58% of the variation in AD. The variable VI was found to have no statistical significance in the prediction of AD, and was subsequently omitted from the model. The resulting two variable model could account for 79.54% of the variation in AD. The single most influential variable in the prediction of AD was RI, which accounted for 42% of the variation in the criterion variable. Angle deviation was greatest for balls that were projected with backspin and least for balls that were projected with topspin. The variable AI was significant in the prediction model, even though it could account for only 9.8% of the variation in AD by itself. Tennis balls which impacted the surface at an angle less than 45 degrees experienced a greater AD than those which impacted at an angle greater than 45 degrees. Conclusion. Angle of incidence and rotation of incidence each have a significant effect upon the angle deviation of a rebounding tennis ball. When these two variables are known, it is possible to predict angle deviation.

*Stern, Michele. "An integrated skills reinforcement program for beginning tennis." EdD Diss. Columbia Univ. Teachers College, 1988. Available from Columbia Univ. Teachers College, New York, NY 10027

During the last two decades higher education has enrolled an increasing number of students who are academically underprepared for college work. Developmental and remedial programs were created to remedy these basic skills deficiencies and to bridge the gap into college level work. This study is a presentation of a course in Beginning Tennis based upon the Integrated Skills Reinforcement model inclusive of assessment components. Bronx Community College of the City University of New York serves as the background for this project. The tennis class is the context in which basic academic skills are introduced and integrated throughout the course content. This represents the first time a college physical activity course has been integrated with basic academic skills instruction. In addition, the assessments, (clinical in nature), explore the basis for student success in reading, writing, listening and speaking while highlighting positive instructional strategies. The underprepared students in this project were widely divergent in their basic academic skill levels. The integration of the tennis skills with the academic skills motivated these learners to interact on many different levels and individually improve both their cognitive and physical skill levels. This study recognizes the problems of this generation of underprepared college students at the City University of New York and addresses basic academic skills while focusing on the content of the specific discipline. It establishes an alternative remedial/developmental approach to instruction of basic skills in higher education that stimulates independent, active learning. It further suggests a need to develop evaluative techniques to explore the curricular and institutional effects of this type of program.

*Steyn, Barend Johannes Marthinus. Attention and success of tennis players. MA Thesis. Univ. of Pretoria, 1986. Available from Univ. of Pretoria, Brooklyn, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

*Van Wieringen, P.C., et al. "The effect of video feedback on the learning of the tennis service by intermediate players." Journal of Sports Sciences 7.2 (1989):153 62.

Effects of video feedback on improvement of the tennis service were investigated in subjects having at least 2 years of playing experience in tennis. The experiment was carried out in an indoor tennis hall under normal training conditions. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: a video feedback training (VFT) group, a traditional training (TT) group and a control group, each consisting of 22 subjects. While the subjects of the control group received no training at all, subjects in both the VFT and TT groups were trained twice weekly during 5 consecutive weeks. Each training session lasted 40 min, of which 30 min was spent on actual practice in training of the service. The remaining 10 min was spent on watching, analysing and discussing video recordings of either their own service performed during the training session (VFT group), or ground strokes and volleys of top level players (TT group). Both the VFT and TT group showed significantly greater improvements in both achievement scores and form (technique) scores than did the control group. No differences, however, could be demonstrated between the VFT and TT group, indicating that the subjects of the former group did not benefit from the video feedback they received. While form scores correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the velocity of the served ball, no such relation between form scores and spatial accuracy was apparent.

*Waggoner, Janet May. The effects of self-instruction and traditional instruction on achievement in tennis. MA Thesis. California State Univ., Dominquez Hills, 1990. Ann Arbor, UMI, 1991. Order No. MA1341249.

It was the intention of this study to evaluate the effects of self-instruction and traditional instruction in tennis. The study was conducted using three classes, with a total population of 128 students, from Carson High School on Los Angeles Unified School District. Thirty students were randomly selected and 15 students were taught through self-instruction and 15 students were taught by the traditional method of instruction. The course material, instruction, and tests were controlled. Both groups were given pre and post written tests and pre and post skill tests. There were no significant differences between self-instructed and traditional groups in either written or skill achievement.

*Wang, Jin-Cherng. "The impact dynamics of a tennis ball striking a hard surface." PhD Diss. Oregon State Univ., 1989. Available from Microform Publications, 1243 Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 Order No. PE3158

The purpose of this research was to study the impact phenomena of a tennis ball striking a hard surface. Stroboscopic photography was used to collect the ball's impact images from 7 angles of incidence, ranging from -23 degrees to -70 degrees with zero, top and back initial spin respectively. The results were: (1) the successive differences approach did not lend itself well to the investigation of tennis ball impact phenomena; (2) the successive integration approach based on the Damped Sin Pulse Model, could be used successfully to describe both the horizonal and vertical forces, velocities and positions of ball impact on a surface; (3) in the case of -23 degrees incident angle, the effect of top-spin will produce a high value for the coefficient of restitution, which provides the ball a chance to rebound higher; (4) the horizonal component velocity will influence a shallow angle impact with back-spin ball on a surface to have a smaller sliding friction; (5) the findings of this study will provide the instructor of tennis skills with information to fully explain the effects of utilizing the racquet to impart spin to the tennis ball; and (6) this study provides guidelines for future research that is likely to affect the methodology of teaching tennis skills.

*Wells, Ward Tom. The effect of the graduated length method on tennis achievement of beginners. PED Diss. Indiana Univ., 1981. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1982. Order No. 8221544.

The Problem. The problem was to determine the effectiveness of learning beginning tennis skills through the use of the Graduated Length Method. This method of instruction used four progressions that varied implement length used by the learner. Procedures. From seven college tennis classes, sixty four students were identified as beginners. These students were randomly assigned to either the group that learned by the Graduated Length Method or to the group that learned with a full length racket. Except for the differences in the striking implement length, both groups received exactly the same instruction. Two tests, one for the groundstrokes and one for the service, were constructed to measure the control, velocity, and depth of these basic skills of tennis. The groundstrokes test was given as a pre test, at two pertinent times during the course of instruction, and as a post test. A MANOVA was used to analyze the results of these groundstrokes tests. The service test, Hewitt's revision of the Dyer Wallboard Test, and ratings by two judges were used to compare the final basic skills of the two groups. Hotelling's T('2) was used for this analysis. Findings. Although both groups did show significant increases in performance on both groundstrokes during the instruction period, there were no significant differences between the groups at any point during that period or between the measures of basic skill at the end of the instruction. Low reliabilities for the tests given could have masked possible significant differences. Conclusions. The Graduated Length Method appears to be an effective method for teaching groundstrokes. Its effectiveness for basic tennis skill achievement is equal to that of the traditionally used method. Implementations. The Graduated Length Method could be implemented by purchasing the specially made short rackets, constructing short rackets, or by restricting the student's grip on full length rackets. Recommendations. Further research should be conducted on the Graduated Length Method in relation different age groups, instructional settings, and student's anthropometric measures and striking experiences. Determination of reliabilities of tests used in future methodology studies is also indicated.

*Ziegler, Susan G. "Effects of stimulus cueing on the acquisition of groundstrokes by beginning tennis players." Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 20.4 (1987): 405-11.

This study used a multiple baseline design to examine the effects of stimulus self-cueing on the acquisition of forehand and backhand returns by 24 beginning tennis players aged 19-31 years. A 4-step verbal cueing program was introduced during intervention. Both the use of the technique and the successful number of returns were recorded. Each group showed an acceleration in skill acquisition during intervention, with both forehand and backhand returns improving over 45% from baseline conditions. Implications for the teaching of beginning tennis skills are discussed.

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