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*Robert, J.J. "A study to determine the influence of throwing
skills on the subsequent learning of the service in tennis."
MAT Thesis. Southeast Missouri State Univ, 1984. Available from
Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO 63701
33 college women who had never participated in formal tennis lessons
were randomly selected as Ss. The Shick Wall and Floor Target
Test was given for the purpose of grouping the Ss into 3 levels
of softball throwing ability on 3 separate measurements: throwing
accuracy; throwing velocity; and a combined T score of throwing
accuracy and throwing velocity. On the following day, Hewitt's
Service Placement and Speed of Service Tests were given. Service
instruction was followed and then Hewitt's tests were readministered.
The conclusions of the study were: throwing velocity had a significant
effect on service accuracy; there was a significant relationship
between throwing accuracy and the pre-test accuracy service scores
and the post-test velocity service scores; there was a significant
relationship the throwing velocity scores and the post-test velocity
service scores; and there was a significant relationship the combined
T scores of throwing accuracy and throwing velocity and the pre-test
accuracy service scores, and the post-test velocity service scores.
*Roetert, Ernst Paul. Development of a performance profile to
assess nationally ranked junior tennis players. PhD Diss. Univ.
of Connecticut, 1990. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1991. Order No. 9115584.
The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the relationships
among athletic ability performance parameters and specific measures
of tennis performance so that an appropriate tennis specific test
battery can be designed and modified, and (2) to compare these
results with tennis stroke ratings and USTA rankings for 12 and
under nationally ranked male tennis players. Each player's performance
scores from the USTA's performance test battery were correlated
with the player's age, ranking and tennis stroke ratings. Specific
weightings were assigned to each performance test based on the
results of the correlation analyses. The athletic ability measurements
that were assessed and correlated with age, rankings and tennis
stroke ratings were: flexibility, strength, power, agility, speed,
aerobic endurance and response time. Although significant correlations
were found among several physical performance variables, significant
correlations of these variables with age, rankings and tennis
stroke ratings were not found. Of all the predictor variables,
the hexagon test was the only variable to account for a significant
degree of variation in rankings. Additional statistics revealed
that while significant correlations were found between the tennis
stroke ratings (determined through video analysis by expert tennis
teaching professionals) and both sectional and national rankings,
significantly higher correlations emerged between tennis stroke
ratings and national rankings than between tennis stroke ratings
and sectional rankings. The information gained from this study
will assist in determining physical profiles of nationally ranked
junior tennis players, in establishing norms for nationally ranked
junior tennis players, and in assessing the importance of each
test to overall tennis skill in particular.
*Rose, Debra J., Edward M. Heath, and Donald M. Megale. "Development
of a diagnostic instrument for evaluating tennis serving performance."
Perceptual and Motor Skills 71.2 (1990): 355-63.
This study validated a learning-sequence rating form for the slice
tennis serve. Six skill components were identified and served
as the basis for evaluation. Movement characteristics for observable
learning stages were also described. The videotaped serving actions
of 81 tennis players of different ability were evaluated independently
by trained raters using the rating form developed. A measure of
the rating form's reliability was obtained. Content-related evidence
for validity was also obtained.
Intraclass reliability coefficients ranged from .70 to .96 across
the 6 skill components identified in the final rating form. The
tennis serve rating form may provide a reliable and valid instrument
for evaluating tennis serving performance at various stages of
*Sampedro, Renan Maximiliano Fernandes. The anthropometric somatotype
differences between male and female tennis players 10 to 14 years
of age in the state of Tennessee. PhD Diss. Peabody College for
Teachers of Vanderbilt Univ., 1982. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1983. Order
This study was designed to identify the major differences in
the Heath Carter anthropometric somatotype of male and female
ranked tennis players in the Tennessee Tennis Association between
the ages of 10 to 14 years. Subjects (N = 120) were 71 male and
49 female volunteer junior tennis players of the state of Tennessee.
All subjects were ranked players in the Tennessee Tennis Association
in the groups of 10, 12, and 14 years old. The Heath Carter Anthropometric
Somatotype Method was used in obtaining the somatotype ratings.
Measurements included: height, weight, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac,
and medial calf skinfolds, humerus, and femur diameters, biceps,
and calf girths.
The results indicate that there were no significant differences
in body size measures and somatotypes between males and females
in the age groups of 10 and 12. Significant differences were found
in almost all body size measures and somatotypes between males
and females in the 14 year old group. The mean somatotype for
males was 2.4 4.2 3.7 or mesomorph ectomorph; for females was
3.1 3.6 3.2 or central; the general somatotype for the entire
sample, was ectomorphic mesomorph, or a close 2.5 4.0 3.5.
No significant relationship was found for any other groups between
body size measures and somatotype with performance or ranking
in tennis. However, a slightly higher but yet not significant
relationship was shown when data of the top 20 ranked players
in each of the age and sex groups was analyzed. No significant
differences were noticed between males and females in their correlation
coefficients. In the arm dominance analysis, no significant differences
were present between dominant and nondominant arms' triceps skinfold
for all age and sex groups. However, humerus diameter measures
were found to have significantly higher values in the dominant
arm than in the nondominant arm, for all age and sex groups. No
significant differences were found for the biceps girth values
between the dominant and nondominant arm of either sex in the
10 year old age groups. For the 12 and 14 year old groups of
both sexes, the biceps girth of the dominant arm was found to
be significantly bigger than it was in the nondominant arm.
*Schleihauf, Robert. "Tennis serve biomechanics." USTA
Research Grant, 1991. Information available from Dr. Robert Schleihauf,
CUNY Hunter College, New York, NY 10021
The author studied the tennis serve biomechanics of 20 professionally
ranked players. Using video cameras and 3-dimensional video analysis
software, the author determined data which will outline the skilled
serve techniques. A comprehensive database of skilled serves was
compiled and made available for the benefit of evaluation and
*Smith, James Frank, III. The effect of angle, velocity, and rotation
of incidence on the angle deviation of rebounding tennis balls.
PhD Diss. Texas A&M Univ., 1988. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1989. Order
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship
between the three predictor variables of angle of incidence (AI),
velocity of incidence (VI), and rotation of incidence (RI) and
the criterion variable of angle deviation (AD) of rebounding tennis
balls. Procedure. A total of 30 observations were recorded by
the Locam high speed camera operating at 400 frames per second
and positioned at a right angle to the line of flight of the ball
at the point of rebound. The tennis balls were projected from
a Prince ball machine suspended above a Laykold court surface.
The angles of projection were approximately 15, 30, 45, 60, and
75 degrees. The balls were projected at two different velocities,
and with either topspin, backspin, or no spin. Results. A significant
relationship was found to exist between the criterion variable
and the three predictors. The proposed model was shown to account
for 79.58% of the variation in AD. The variable VI was found to
have no statistical significance in the prediction of AD, and
was subsequently omitted from the model. The resulting two variable
model could account for 79.54% of the variation in AD. The single
most influential variable in the prediction of AD was RI, which
accounted for 42% of the variation in the criterion variable.
Angle deviation was greatest for balls that were projected with
backspin and least for balls that were projected with topspin.
The variable AI was significant in the prediction model, even
though it could account for only 9.8% of the variation in AD by
itself. Tennis balls which impacted the surface at an angle less
than 45 degrees experienced a greater AD than those which impacted
at an angle greater than 45 degrees. Conclusion. Angle of incidence
and rotation of incidence each have a significant effect upon
the angle deviation of a rebounding tennis ball. When these two
variables are known, it is possible to predict angle deviation.
*Stern, Michele. "An integrated skills reinforcement program
for beginning tennis." EdD Diss. Columbia Univ. Teachers
College, 1988. Available from Columbia Univ. Teachers College,
New York, NY 10027
During the last two decades higher education has enrolled an increasing
number of students who are academically underprepared for college
work. Developmental and remedial programs were created to remedy
these basic skills deficiencies and to bridge the gap into college
level work. This study is a presentation of a course in Beginning
Tennis based upon the Integrated Skills Reinforcement model inclusive
of assessment components. Bronx Community College of the City
University of New York serves as the background for this project.
The tennis class is the context in which basic academic skills
are introduced and integrated throughout the course content. This
represents the first time a college physical activity course has
been integrated with basic academic skills instruction. In addition,
the assessments, (clinical in nature), explore the basis for student
success in reading, writing, listening and speaking while highlighting
positive instructional strategies. The underprepared students
in this project were widely divergent in their basic academic
skill levels. The integration of the tennis skills with the academic
skills motivated these learners to interact on many different
levels and individually improve both their cognitive and physical
skill levels. This study recognizes the problems of this generation
of underprepared college students at the City University of New
York and addresses basic academic skills while focusing on the
content of the specific discipline. It establishes an alternative
remedial/developmental approach to instruction of basic skills
in higher education that stimulates independent, active learning.
It further suggests a need to develop evaluative techniques to
explore the curricular and institutional effects of this type
*Steyn, Barend Johannes Marthinus. Attention and success of tennis
players. MA Thesis. Univ. of Pretoria, 1986. Available from Univ.
of Pretoria, Brooklyn, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.
*Van Wieringen, P.C., et al. "The effect of video feedback
on the learning of the tennis service by intermediate players."
Journal of Sports Sciences 7.2 (1989):153 62.
Effects of video feedback on improvement of the tennis service
were investigated in subjects having at least 2 years of playing
experience in tennis. The experiment was carried out in an indoor
tennis hall under normal training conditions. Subjects were randomly
divided into three groups: a video feedback training (VFT) group,
a traditional training (TT) group and a control group, each consisting
of 22 subjects. While the subjects of the control group received
no training at all, subjects in both the VFT and TT groups were
trained twice weekly during 5 consecutive weeks. Each training
session lasted 40 min, of which 30 min was spent on actual practice
in training of the service. The remaining 10 min was spent on
watching, analysing and discussing video recordings of either
their own service performed during the training session (VFT group),
or ground strokes and volleys of top level players (TT group).
Both the VFT and TT group showed significantly greater improvements
in both achievement scores and form (technique) scores than did
the control group. No differences, however, could be demonstrated
between the VFT and TT group, indicating that the subjects of
the former group did not benefit from the video feedback they
received. While form scores correlated significantly (P less than
0.001) with the velocity of the served ball, no such relation
between form scores and spatial accuracy was apparent.
*Waggoner, Janet May. The effects of self-instruction and traditional
instruction on achievement in tennis. MA Thesis. California State
Univ., Dominquez Hills, 1990. Ann Arbor, UMI, 1991. Order No.
It was the intention of this study to evaluate the effects of
self-instruction and traditional instruction in tennis. The study
was conducted using three classes, with a total population of
128 students, from Carson High School on Los Angeles Unified School
District. Thirty students were randomly selected and 15 students
were taught through self-instruction and 15 students were taught
by the traditional method of instruction. The course material,
instruction, and tests were controlled. Both groups were given
pre and post written tests and pre and post skill tests. There
were no significant differences between self-instructed and traditional
groups in either written or skill achievement.
*Wang, Jin-Cherng. "The impact dynamics of a tennis ball
striking a hard surface." PhD Diss. Oregon State Univ., 1989.
Available from Microform Publications, 1243 Univ. of Oregon, Eugene,
OR 97403 Order No. PE3158
The purpose of this research was to study the impact phenomena
of a tennis ball striking a hard surface. Stroboscopic photography
was used to collect the ball's impact images from 7 angles of
incidence, ranging from -23 degrees to -70 degrees with zero,
top and back initial spin respectively. The results were: (1)
the successive differences approach did not lend itself well to
the investigation of tennis ball impact phenomena; (2) the successive
integration approach based on the Damped Sin Pulse Model, could
be used successfully to describe both the horizonal and vertical
forces, velocities and positions of ball impact on a surface;
(3) in the case of -23 degrees incident angle, the effect of top-spin
will produce a high value for the coefficient of restitution,
which provides the ball a chance to rebound higher; (4) the horizonal
component velocity will influence a shallow angle impact with
back-spin ball on a surface to have a smaller sliding friction;
(5) the findings of this study will provide the instructor of
tennis skills with information to fully explain the effects of
utilizing the racquet to impart spin to the tennis ball; and (6)
this study provides guidelines for future research that is likely
to affect the methodology of teaching tennis skills.
*Wells, Ward Tom. The effect of the graduated length method on
tennis achievement of beginners. PED Diss. Indiana Univ., 1981.
Ann Arbor: UMI, 1982. Order No. 8221544.
The Problem. The problem was to determine the effectiveness of
learning beginning tennis skills through the use of the Graduated
Length Method. This method of instruction used four progressions
that varied implement length used by the learner. Procedures.
From seven college tennis classes, sixty four students were identified
as beginners. These students were randomly assigned to either
the group that learned by the Graduated Length Method or to the
group that learned with a full length racket. Except for the differences
in the striking implement length, both groups received exactly
the same instruction. Two tests, one for the groundstrokes and
one for the service, were constructed to measure the control,
velocity, and depth of these basic skills of tennis. The groundstrokes
test was given as a pre test, at two pertinent times during the
course of instruction, and as a post test. A MANOVA was used to
analyze the results of these groundstrokes tests. The service
test, Hewitt's revision of the Dyer Wallboard Test, and ratings
by two judges were used to compare the final basic skills of the
two groups. Hotelling's T('2) was used for this analysis. Findings.
Although both groups did show significant increases in performance
on both groundstrokes during the instruction period, there were
no significant differences between the groups at any point during
that period or between the measures of basic skill at the end
of the instruction. Low reliabilities for the tests given could
have masked possible significant differences. Conclusions. The
Graduated Length Method appears to be an effective method for
teaching groundstrokes. Its effectiveness for basic tennis skill
achievement is equal to that of the traditionally used method.
Implementations. The Graduated Length Method could be implemented
by purchasing the specially made short rackets, constructing short
rackets, or by restricting the student's grip on full length rackets.
Recommendations. Further research should be conducted on the Graduated
Length Method in relation different age groups, instructional
settings, and student's anthropometric measures and striking experiences.
Determination of reliabilities of tests used in future methodology
studies is also indicated.
*Ziegler, Susan G. "Effects of stimulus cueing on the acquisition
of groundstrokes by beginning tennis players." Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis 20.4 (1987): 405-11.
This study used a multiple baseline design to examine the effects of stimulus self-cueing on the acquisition of forehand and backhand returns by 24 beginning tennis players aged 19-31 years. A 4-step verbal cueing program was introduced during intervention. Both the use of the technique and the successful number of returns were recorded. Each group showed an acceleration in skill acquisition during intervention, with both forehand and backhand returns improving over 45% from baseline conditions. Implications for the teaching of beginning tennis skills are discussed.
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