Penn State Lehigh Valley BIOLOGY 110
BIOL 240W:
Function and Development of Organisms
Fertilization of Egg Cell
* Course Materials

* Course Objectives

* Organization & Policies

* Evaluation Methods

* University Policies

* Class Syllabus

* Lab Syllabus

Spring 2016

Class Time: Monday, Wednesday, & Friday 10:10 AM - 11:00 AM
Class Room: 318 Saucon
Laboratory Time:

Section 001: Wednesday 2:30 PM - 4:30 PM

Laboratory Room: 316 Saucon
Instructor: Jacqueline McLaughlin, Ph.D.
  Associate Professor of Biology
Cell and Developmental Biologist
Office: 3N
Office Hours:

Monday & Friday 1:00 PM to 4:00 PM (Appointment Needed; extra hours posted on office door on a weekly basis)

Office Phone: (610) 285-5109
On-Line Resources: Biology 240W: Chicken Heart Lab

The Biology Place

HHMI Biointeractive  
Interactive Physiology  

Login Name: psubiology

Password: LV240WIP
Society for Developmental Biology  
  Quest Lecturers: TBA  
Laboratory Research Assistant: Mrs. Kandiss Schrader, M.S.
Biology Tutor: Taylor Rundatz

Credits, class periods, lab periods: 4, 3, 3

BIOL 240 can be considered an extension of BIOL 110, which is a prerequisite for this course. Chem 110 is also a mandated prerequisite.

This course provides an understanding of the major unifying principles as they apply to the study of the development and physiological mechanisms utilized by organisms from both animals and plants. In lecture a comparative approach will be taken in the examination of reproduction, development, and physiology primarily at the organismal level. In laboratory, experimental, investigations of both animal and plant systems will reinforce the concepts covered in lecture. Through the lab, students are expected to become proficient in the interpretation and presentation of experimental results through written and oral reports. Taken together with the other core courses in the biology curriculum (Biology 110, Biology 220W, Biology 230W), Biology 240W will help students to integrate concepts ranging from molecular and cellular events through principles governing entire populations and ecosystems. Further, Biology 240W provides the foundation on which students further their study of animal physiology and development - two of the largest options in the biology majors' curriculum.

Course Materials

Textbook: Pearson Customized Library: Biology 240W , Reese, J.B. et al., Function and Development of Organisms (Only available at the Penn State Lehigh Valley book store)
ISBN: 1323349081

Writing Manual: Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences (3rd Edition), Victoria E. McMillan (On reserve in the Library)
ISBN: 978-0312258573

Biology 110, 220W, 230W, 240W - Lab Report Grading Rubric

Biology 110, 220W, 230W, 240W - Example Protocol

Articles: Gopen, G. D. and J. A. Swan (1990). The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist, 78: 550-558.

Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., McWhir, J., Kind, A. J., & Campbell, K. H. S. (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature, 385: 810-813.

Walters, Ethan. DNA is Not Destiny Discover Magazine (November, 2006)

Others TBA.

Laboratory Supplies: Laboratory notebook with graph paper.

Course Objectives (what YOU will be able to do by the end of this course)

  1. Explain the basic metabolism, physiology and development of plants and animals at the organismic, cellular, and molecular levels.
  2. Blend classical embryological concepts with current cellular, molecular, and evolutionary understandings of development.
  3. Independently perform tissue culture using embryonic chicken hearts.
  4. Apply scientific inquiry to laboratory experimentation, scientific writing, and oral presentation.
  5. Think, creatively design, and undertake an authentic research experiment.
  6. Record scientific data in a laboratory notebook and be able to interpret data.
  7. Write scientifically, i.e., transform discovery and the recording of data into valid and clear interpretations.
  8. Utilize technology as both a means of learning and a research aid.
  9. Work in groups. Scientific research is rarely a solo experience.
  10. Enjoy being a scientific researcher!

Organization and Policies

  • Class:

The course meets three times a week. Class topics are outlined in the schedule below.

    • An integral part of this course is the development of critical thinking skills. Science is a dynamic process that requires more than mere acquisition and memorization of facts. It requires understanding the interrelationships of all life from the sub-cellular level to the whole organism. Classroom presentations will guide you in the development of your critical thinking skills, and the comprehension of the core concepts that thread through physiology and developmental biology. Laboratories will stimulate and support these goals.

    • I will use the class period to clarify concepts which are presented in the textbook or assigned online modules/resources. I will assume you have covered assigned material beforehand. It is important that you strive to not only understand concepts, but also the research that led to their conceptualization. Mere memorization will not suffice. I strongly suggest that you participate in a study group of some type and use the group to assess your comprehension of the course material. Routine formative assessments in the form of Readiness Assessment Tests (RATS) tests will also help you in this regard.

    • My cumulative pedagogical research efforts in the field of biology teaching and learning have led to my developing a "triangulation" model of biology instruction, in which classroom presentations by the instructor, interactive technology used in and out of the classroom, and traditional text/journal articles play equal roles. I will provide direction for its implementation in our classroom.

  • Laboratories:

Laboratories will commence on the first week of classes and will meet as scheduled.

Check your schedule carefully before attending each lab. The laboratory activities are designed to give you an opportunity to learn inquiry-based science and critical thinking skills. I will provide instruction on the nuts and bolts of appropriate experimental methods. I will also provide guidance into how an effective experiment is designed and carried out through the use of scientific inquiry. You will then perform your own experiments so as to develop your own knowledge base and understanding of scientific ideas, as well as an understanding of how scientists study the natural world. For instance, you (and your assigned lab group) will carry out an Independent Research Project (IRP) on the effect of a known pharmacological agent on chicken heart development. You, as the researcher, must design, carry out, and assess every step of your experimental endeavor. My wholehearted advice is that you think about the experiments you are carrying out, plan ahead, follow through, and be pro-active with your writing assignments.

    • For some of the laboratory activities you will spend the first meeting learning experimental methodology. You will then have the next few days to design an experiment and turn in a protocol, which will be graded and turned back to you. The next laboratory session(s) will be your time to carry-out your proposed experiment and to collect/analyze your data. Importantly, it is suggested that you keep an accurate and updated notebook. I will be continually instructing you on the maintenance of this notebook. Note that your notebook will be routinely checked and graded.

    • To receive "W" credit, each student will be required to write one protocol and one formal lab report (Brassica rapa growth regulation). There will also be an Independent Research Project (IRP) that will require a formal scientific paper (heart development). You will be required to follow the guidelines in Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences (McMillan, 2001). For all assigned writing endeavors, you will have the opportunity for numerous revisions prior to receiving your grade. As stated, this semester's IRP will concentrate on heart development and will require intense organization and commitment on your behalf. It will be your opportunity to excel as a research scientist and scientific writer.
  • Attendance and Make-up Exams:

You will be responsible for all material covered in class and assigned online modules/videos and textbook/journal readings.

    • Please note your exam schedule is interwoven within your lab syllabus. All of the exams will be used to assess your performance in this course; none will be dropped. Only those individuals with legitimate and verifiable excuses will be allowed to schedule a make-up exam. If you cannot take the exam at a scheduled time, you need to contact me as soon as possible.

* It is stressed that if you are late for class or miss class because of dangerous weather conditions, your safety is more important. Please, always drive safely.

  • Missed Laboratories:

Lab attendance is mandatory. If you miss a lab you must have a legitimate excuse.

    • If you fail to make up a missed lab you will lose 200 of your total laboratory points at the end of the semester. Missed labs will indeed affect your grade.
  • Classroom Courtesy:

No cell phones, pagers, or alarm watches, please. Also, please keep all beverages, food, and chewing gum out of the classroom and laboratory areas.

Evaluation Methods

Knowledge of class material will be evaluated by four semester exams, four readiness assessment tests (RATS), eight online assignments, and a comprehensive final exam. The class exams will cover the material that is presented in the class, the assigned textbook and journal readings, as well as interactive online assignments. Each exam will consist of multiple choice, fill-ins, short answers, and essays. The final exam will test your comprehensive knowledge of the entire semester's material. The lab component will be judged on two individual lab protocols, an individual lab report, a group-based scientific paper, a professional lab notebook, and of course, work ethic.

4 Semester Exams (100 points each) = 400 points
4 Readiness Assessment Tests (RATS) = 100 points
8 Online Assignments = 200 points
1 Final Exam = 200 points
Total = 900 points

Brassica rapa Protocol = 100 points
Brassica rapa Lab Report = 200 points
IRP Chicken Heart Protocol = 100 points
IRP Chicken Heart Scientific Paper = 400 points
Lab Notebook = 200 points
Total = 1000 points

Class grades will be determined by a percentage scale based upon the total number of points available (900 points). Lab grades will be determined by a percentage scale based upon the total number of points available (1,000 points). Class component equals 60% of overall final grade; lab grade equals 40% of overall final grade.

Penn State University letter grade equivalents:
95-100 A
90-94 A-
87-89 B+
84-86 B
80-83 B-
75-79 C+
70-74 C
60-69 D
0-59 F


University Policies

  • Academic Integrity Policy

Academic integrity is the pursuit of scholarly activity in an open, honest and responsible manner.

Academic integrity is a basic guiding principle for all academic activity at The Pennsylvania State University, and all members of the University community are expected to act in accordance with this principle. Consistent with this expectation, the University's Code of Conduct states that all students should act with personal integrity, respect other students' dignity, rights and property, and help create and maintain an environment in which all can succeed through the fruits of their efforts.

Academic integrity includes a commitment not to engage in or tolerate acts of falsification, misrepresentation or deception. Such acts of dishonesty violate the fundamental ethical principles of the University community and compromise the worth of work completed by others.

Penn State University Academic Policy 49-20

Academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, fabrication of information or citation, prior possession of examinations, submitting work of another person or work previously used without informing the instructor, or tampering with the academic work of other students.

For further guidance on matching punishment with infractions, see "Sanctioning Guidelines for Academic Integrity Violations"


  • Disability Access Statement

Penn State University welcomes students with disabilities into the University's educational programs. If you have a disability-related need for modifications or reasonable accommodations in this course, please inform the instructor or contact Linda Rumfield in Disability Services: (610) 285-5124, The Learning Center, as early in the semester as possible.


  • Affirmative Action

Pennsylvania State University is committed to a policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by Commonwealth or Federal authorities. Penn State does not discriminate against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. Direct all inquiries to the Affirmative Action Office.

Class Syllabus

Class Content
Required Readings / Web Based Activities
M 1/11

Introduction To Course and Animal Development

Chapter 4: concept 3, pages 95-99 (human reproductive organs and gametogenesis), concept 3, Figure 15; Chapter 1: concept 2 and 3, pages 6-14 (calcium and inositol triphosphate); Chapter 3: concepts 1-3, pages 63-84.

SDB Cinema: Lionel Jaffe's Calcium Tsunami

BioCoach: Meiosis

Egg Activation Experiment

Video: Fertilization - Conception

Video: Human Development

Video: When The Egg Meets Sperm

W 1/13

Animal Development (Continued)

F 1/15

Animal Development (Continued)


M 1/18

Martin Luther King Jr. Day

No Class

W 1/20
Animal Development (Continued)
F 1/22
Animal Development (Continued)

Online Assessment #1

Video: Dolly The Cloned Sheep

Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., McWhir, J., Kind, A. J., & Campbell, K. H. S. (1997) Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature, 385: 810-813

M 1/25
Animal Development (Continued)
W 1/27
Animal Development (Continued)


F 1/29
Animal Development (Continued)
M 2/1
Animal Structure and Function

Chapter 5: concepts 1-4, pages 119-139.

W 2/3
Animal Structure and Function (Continued)
F 2/5
Animal Structure and Function (Continued)

Online Assessment #2

Video: Tissues

M 2/8
Animal Structure and Function (Continued)
W 2/10

Animal Nutrition

Chapter 6: concepts 1-5

F 2/12

Animal Nutrition (Continued)


M 2/15 Animal Nutrition (Continued)  
W 2/17 Animal Nutrition (Continued)

Online Assignment #3

Interactive Physiology: Digestive System - Anatomy Review and Digestion and Absorption

F 2/19
Animal Nutrition (Continued)
M 2/22

Circulation and Gas Exchange


Chapter 7: concepts 1-7: pages 183-211.

Interactive Physiology: Cardiovascular System – Anatomy Review

The Biology Place: Cardiovascular System I - The Beating Heart

The Biology Place: Cardiovascular System II - The Vascular Highway

Video: EKG Training

W 2/24 Circulation and Gas Exchange (Continued)  
F 2/26

Circulation and Gas Exchange (Continued)


S 2/27

Pennsylvania Junior Academy of Sciences (PJAS)

Easton, PA


M 2/29
Circulation and Gas Exchange (Continued)


W 3/2 Circulation and Gas Exchange (Continued)
F 3/4
Circulation and Gas Exchange (Continued)


M 3/7
No Class (Spring Break)


W 3/9
No Class (Spring Break)
F 3/11
No Class (Spring Break)


M 3/14

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Chapter 8: concepts 1-5, pages 221-240.

Interactive Physiology: The Excretory System – Anatomy Review

W 3/16
Osmoregulation and Excretion (Continued)
F 3/18
Osmoregulation and Excretion (Continued)

Online Assessment #5

Video: The Urinary System - The Nephron

Video Lessons: (1) Khan Academy Lecture The Kidney and the Nephron and (2) Khan Academy Lecture Parts of a Nephron

M 3/21

Osmoregulation and Excretion (Continued)



W 3/23

Osmoregulation and Excretion (Continued)


F 3/25
Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Chapter 11: concept 1; pages 289-294.

M 3/28
Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling (Continued)

Chapter 10: Concepts 1- 4; 267-282.

Interactive Physiology:
The Nervous System I –
Anatomy Review

W 3/30
Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling (Continued)


F 4/1
Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling (Continued)


M 4/4
Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling (Continued)

Online Assessment #6

Interactive Physiology:
The Nervous System I –
The Action Potential

T 4/5


W 4/6
F 4/8
Motor Function

Chapter 12: concept 5; pages 331-338.

M 4/11
Motor Function (Continued)


W 4/13
Motor Function (Continued)
F 4/15
Origins and Diversification of Plants; Angiosperm Reproduction; Gymnosperm Reproduction
Chapter 13: concept 1; pages 348-354.
Chapter 14: concepts 2 -3; pages 373-385.
M 4/18

Origins and Diversification of Plants; Angiosperm Reproduction; Gymnosperm Reproduction (Continued)



R 4.21

Penn State Regional Undergraduate Research Symposium, Penn State Lehigh Valley


W 4/20
Plant Structure, Growth,
and Development

Chapter 15: concepts 1-4; pages 392-409.

The Biology Place:
Plant, Structure and Growth

F 4/22
Plant Structure, Growth,
and Development


M 4/25
Plant Structure, Growth,
and Development


W 4/27
Plant Structure, Growth,
and Development

Online Assessment #8


F 4/29

Plant Responses to Internal Signals

Chapter 17: concepts 1-5; pages 446-471.

Finals Week May 2nd to May 6th 2016

Final Exam Date & Time to be Announced

Lab Syllabus

Chicken Fetus

W 1/13
Introduction to the lab!
W 1/20
Animal Development: Echinoderms

Video: A Dozen Eggs
Lab Topic 24.1

W 1/27
Animal Development: Amphibians

Video: A Dozen Eggs
Lab Topic 24.2

Pre-lab review of Wilmut, I. et al (1997) paper

W 2/3
Animal Development: Zebrafish
W 2/10


Animal Development: Birds

Lab Topics 24.4

W 2/17

Animal Development: Birds (Continued)
Development of the Chicken Heart

Lab Topic 24.4
SDB Web Site

W 2/24

RP: Development of the Chicken Heart
Protocol Review

W 3/2

RP: Development of the Chicken Heart (Continued)
Protocol Due
Lab Report Review

W 3/9
No Class (Spring Break)
Work on Lab Report
W 3/16
RP: Development of the Chicken Heart (Continued)
W 3/23

RP: Development of the Chicken Heart (Continued)

W 3/30

Plant Growth Regulators Experimentation

Draft Chicken Heart Group Scientific Paper Due
W 4/6

Plant Growth Regulators Experimentation (Continued)
Growth Regulators Protocol Due

W 4/13

Plant Growth Regulators Experimentation (Continued)

Final Chicken Heart Group

Scientific Paper Due

W 4/20


W 4/27

Notebook Due

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